This website publicises the findings of PARABAINO, a French programme of scientific and academic research.


Parabainô is a Greek term which means literally ‘stepping aside’, that it to say transgressing the rules or norms set by communities.


The programme PARABAINO aims to approach massacres and extreme violence through the Greek and Roman experiences, from a comparative and multidisciplinary perspective (Anthropology, Archaeology, History, Art History, Classics, Philosophy). The aim is to study how these practices arose, with a view to inscribing Antiquity into the wider understanding of genocides and mass violence; these findings are not solely intended to enrich our knowledge of ancient societies, but also to produce knowledge which can contribute to wider reflection on this topic.

Programme funded by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (N°ANR-19-FGEN-0002)

11 centuries of history

The Parabainô programme studies massacres and extreme violence between the Trojan War and Constantin’s conversion.

The timeline below highlights several landmark events and classifies for each century the documentary notes made available to the public in the ‘Resources’ section of this website.

8th century BC
7th century BC
6th century BC
Fifth century BC
Fourth century BC
Third century BC
Second century BC
First century BC
First century AD
Second century AD
Third Century AD