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Axes de recherches EN Programme Research strands The programme PARABAINO examines the forms of massacres and extreme violence, analysing them from the angle of transgression and probing their legacies. Read more Base documentaire EN Resources Database This site makes available to all short text analyses and iconographic resources resulting from the Parabaino consortium’s scientific work. Read more Evenements EN Events Seminar Here you can follow our main scientific activities: seminars and conferences Read more

Parabaino

This website publicises the findings of PARABAINO, a French programme of scientific and academic research.

 

Parabainô is a Greek term which means literally ‘stepping aside’, that it to say transgressing the rules or norms set by communities.

 

The programme PARABAINO aims to approach massacres and extreme violence through the Greek and Roman experiences, from a comparative and multidisciplinary perspective (Anthropology, Archaeology, History, Art History, Classics, Philosophy). The aim is to study how these practices arose, with a view to inscribing Antiquity into the wider understanding of genocides and mass violence; these findings are not solely intended to enrich our knowledge of ancient societies, but also to produce knowledge which can contribute to wider reflection on this topic.

Programme funded by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (N°ANR-19-FGEN-0002-02)

11 centuries of history

The Parabainô programme studies massacres and extreme violence between the Trojan War and Constantin’s conversion.

The timeline below highlights several landmark events and classifies for each century the documentary notes made available to the public in the ‘Resources’ section of this website.

Preloader
  • Trojan War

  • 776 : First Panhellenic Games in Olympia
    v. 750 : Greek writing appears
    753 : Rome is founded

    776 : First Panhellenic Games in Olympia<br/>v. 750 : Greek writing appears<br/>753 : Rome is founded

    Notes :

  • 670-657 : War between Sparta and Argos
    657 : Byzantium is founded

    670-657 : War between Sparta and Argos<br/>657 : Byzantium is founded

    Notes :

  • 546-540 : Asia Minor conquered by the Persians
    509 : Start of the Roman Republic
    508 : Cleisthenes’s reforms in Athens

    546-540 : Asia Minor conquered by the Persians<br/>509 : Start of the Roman Republic<br/>508 : Cleisthenes’s reforms in Athens

    Notes :

  • 499/6 : Battle of Lake Regillus
    490-479 : First Greco-Persian War
    431-404 : Peloponnisian Wars

    499/6 : Battle of Lake Regillus<br/>490-479 : First Greco-Persian War<br/>431-404 : Peloponnisian Wars

    Notes :

  • 399 : Trial and death of Socrates in Rome
    390 : Sack of Rome by the Gauls
    336-325 : Alexander’s Oriental campaigns

  • 274-272 : First Syrian Wars between the Lagids and Seleucides
    264-241 : Première Guerre Punique
    218-201 : Deuxième Guerre Punique

  • 196 : Greeks proclaimed free in Rome
    172-168 : Troisième Guerre de Macédoine
    146 : Sacking of Carthage and Corinth
    133 : Siege of Numantia

    196 : Greeks proclaimed free in Rome<br/>172-168 : Troisième Guerre de Macédoine<br/>146 : Sacking of Carthage and Corinth<br/>133 : Siege of Numantia

    Notes :

  • 82 : Sylla’s Proscription
    52 : Siege of Alesia by Caesar
    27 : Octavian becomes Augustus

    82 : Sylla’s Proscription<br/>52 : Siege of Alesia by Caesar<br/>27 : Octavian becomes Augustus

    Notes :

  • 9 : Defeat of Varus (Battle of the Teutoburg Forest)
    70 : Sacking of Jerusalem
    79 : Destruction of Pompei

    9 : Defeat of Varus (Battle of the Teutoburg Forest)<br/>70 : Sacking of Jerusalem<br/>79 : Destruction of Pompei

    Notes :

  • 114-117 : Trajan’s Parthian War
    166-180 : Marcomanes war
    197 : Battle of Lyon

    114-117 : Trajan’s Parthian War<br/>166-180 : Marcomanes war<br/>197 : Battle of Lyon

    Notes :

  • 215 : Alexandrian Riots
    271 : Battle of Pavia
    293 : Tetrarchy

    215 : Alexandrian Riots<br/>271 : Battle of Pavia<br/>293 : Tetrarchy

    Notes :